ISIS is Israeli Secret Intelligence Service

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Social Justice

Social Justice

Fair and proper administration of laws conforming to the natural law that all persons, irrespective of ethnic origin, gender, possessions, race, religion, etc., are to be treated equally and without prejudice.

Social justice generally refers to the idea of creating an egalitarian society or institution that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being.[1][2]

The term and modern concept of "social justice" was coined by the Jesuit Luigi Taparelli in 1840 based on the teachings of St. Thomas Aquinas and given further exposure in 1848 by Antonio Rosmini-Serbati.[1][3][4][5][2]

The idea was elaborated by the moral theologian John A. Ryan, who initiated the concept of a living wage.

Father Coughlin also used the term in his publications in the 1930s and the 1940s. It is a part of Catholic social teaching, Social Gospel from Episcopalians and is one of the Four Pillars of the Green Party upheld by green parties worldwide.

Social justice as a secular concept, distinct from religious teachings, emerged mainly in the late twentieth century, influenced primarily by philosopher John Rawls. Some tenets of social justice have been adopted by those on the left of the political spectrum.

Social justice is based on the concepts of human rights and equality and involves a greater degree of economic egalitarianism through progressive taxation, income redistribution, or even property redistribution.

These policies aim to achieve what developmental economists refer to as more equality of opportunity than may currently exist in some societies, and to manufacture equality of outcome in cases where incidental inequalities appear in a procedurally just system.

One definition of justice is "giving to each what he or she is due." The problem is knowing what is "due".

Functionally, "justice" is a set of universal principles which guide people in judging what is right and what is wrong, no matter what culture and society they live in.

Justice is one of the four "cardinal virtues" of classical moral philosophy, along with courage, temperance (self-control) and prudence (efficiency). (Faith, hope and charity are considered
to be the three "religious" virtues.)

Virtues or "good habits" help individuals to develop fully their human potentials, thus enabling them to serve their own self-interests as well as work in harmony with others for their common good.

The ultimate purpose of all the virtues is to elevate the dignity and sovereignty of the human person.

Defining Social Justice

Social justice encompasses economic justice. Social justice is
the virtue which guides us in creating those organized human
interactions we call institutions.

In turn, social institutions, when justly organized, provide us with access to what is good for the person, both individually and in our associations with others.

Social justice also imposes on each of us a personal responsibility to work with others to design and continually perfect our institutions as tools for personal and social development.

Defining Economic Justice

Economic justice, which touches the individual person as well as
the social order, encompasses the moral principles which guide us
in designing our economic institutions.

These institutions determine how each person earns a living, enters into contracts, exchanges goods and services with others and otherwise produces an independent material foundation for his or her economic sustenance.

The ultimate purpose of economic justice is to free each person to engage creatively in the unlimited work beyond economics, that of the mind and the spirit.

The Three Principles of Economic Justice

Like every system, economic justice involves input, output, and feedback for restoring harmony or balance between input and output.

Within the system of economic justice as defined by Louis Kelso
and Mortimer Adler, there are three essential and interdependent

The Principle of Participation, The Principle of Distribution, and
The Principle of Harmony.

Like the legs of a three-legged stool, if any of these principles is weakened or missing, the system of economic justice will collapse.

Social Justice


The Freechild theory of change revolves around the engagement of young people throughout the world around them, in meaningful, empowering relationships that bring about social change.

By becoming connected with organizations committed to social change, young people acknowledge their interdependence and
build their communities.

Point to Ponder

"In assessing moral issues, interdependence shows us that we cannot isolate ourselves from the harmful or criminal act of 'another,' we cannot pretend the criminal or the pirate is bad and I am good, because all of us are to some extent responsible for this state of affairs." - Thich Nhat Hanh


The following list of organizations has been created by Freechild to provide a broad array of opportunities for young people and their adult allies to join together in large movements for social change, affecting individuals, communities, and the world.

Freechild Youth Activism for Social Justice Webpage

Activist Learning Online

Adbusters Media Foundation - Adbusters describes itself as "a global network of artists, activists, writers, pranksters, students, educators and entrepreneurs who want to advance the new social activist movement of the information age."

Adbusters publishes a glossy, provocative magazine of the same name, sponsors Buy Nothing Day and TV Turnoff Week, produces clever "uncommercials" and seeks to agitate so that folks "get mad about corporate disinformation, injustices in the global economy, and any industry that pollutes our physical or mental commons."

AFL-CIO - The AFL-CIO is the largest labor organization in the United States. Its website includes abundant information on organizing campaigns, links to member unions, news articles on union drives, updates on student activism, and sections on union culture and history.

American Friends Service Committee - This venerable social justice organization has a Mexico-U.S. Border Program and publishes an assortment of resources.

AFSC also has a Youth and Militarism project that organizes against JROTC and military presence in public schools. The Cambridge, Massachusetts AFSC publishes Peacework, a monthly journal serving movements for nonviolent social change. AFSC also maintains a film and video library.

Amnesty International USA - AI seeks to promote the human rights included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, focusing especially on prisoners of conscience, ending the death penalty,
and combating torture.

Amnesty's website includes the complete text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as numerous links to human rights groups around the world, articles, video clips, reports, and action opportunities.

Campaign for Labor Rights - Although not the simplest web address to remember, CLR offers an invaluable e-mail listserv of alerts on sweatshop and solidarity issues. Their website includes past updates, links, resources, leaflets, and the like.

The site also features a document library on the Nike campaign, Disney in Haiti, Guess jeans, child labor issues, Mexico, Central America, farm worker issues, as well as youth and campus activism.

CLR publishes a useful newsletter ($35 a year) filled with audio-visual resources, fact sheets and updates on campaigns to support worker organizing around the world.

Catholic Worker Movement - The Catholic Worker Movement is "grounded in a firm belief in the God-given dignity of every human person." Since its founding in 1933 they have protested war, violence and injustice in all forms. Its journal is The Catholic Worker.

The Center for Commercial-Free Public Education (Unplug) - The Center is the main national organization opposing the increasing commercialization of public schools.

It helps communities organize against Channel One, cola contracts and other infiltration of public space by private interests. The Center publishes the newsletter, Not for Sale! and has information about their various campaigns available on their website. - A monthly journal of stories about system-changing, problem-solving initiatives undertaken by social entrepreneurs from around the world.

Clean Clothes Campaign - A coalition of European groups aiming to improve working conditions in the global garment industry. Conducts campaigns and provides information on companies such as Adidas, Benneton, C & A, Disney, Phillips-Van Heusen, Gap, H & M, Levi-Strauss, Nike, and Otto.

Coalition for Justice in the Maquiladoras 530 Bandera, San Antonio, TX 78228; tel.: 210-732-8957; e-mail: A tri-national coalition of religious, environmental, labor, Latino and women's organizations working to pressure U.S.-based transnational corporations to adopt socially responsible practices. Publishes a newsletter and various reports.

Communities Against Rape and Abuse (CARA) - CARA creates spaces for people who are young, of color, queer, incarcerated, poor, and/or have disabilities to invest in the power of collective action, critical dialogue, and community organizing to undermine rape, abuse, and oppression.

Co-op America - Valuable information on sweatshops, consumer boycotts, and strategies to use "consumer and investor power for social change."

Co-op America is a national nonprofit organization that helps individuals find businesses that are environmentally responsible and engage in fair trade, and offers technical assistance to companies aiming for social and environmental responsibility.

The Council of Canadians - This independent organization provides analyses on key issues from a critical and progressive standpoint. Its director, Maude Barlow, is perhaps the leading critic of schemes to privatize the world's freshwater supplies.

CorpWatch - Indispensable resources and news about globalization and justice struggles around the world.

An online issue library includes topics such as biotechnology, Globalization 101, grassroots globalization, sweatshops, the WTO and the IMF/World Bank. Very extensive links. A similarly valuable but unrelated site is Corporate Watch.

Cultural Survival - Cultural Survival sponsors basic research
on indigenous peoples, particularly examining the effects of

The results of this research are published in its Cultural Survival Quarterly. The website includes an education archive with curriculum resources offered, including Rainforest Peoples and Places (grades 6-9), The Chiapas Maya (grades 6-12) and the Rights of Indigenous Nations.

The David Suzuki Foundation - David Suzuki is one of the world's leading geneticists and environmentalists. The foundation is especially active in the area of climate change, focusing on the "urgent need for practical strategies to reduce global warming caused by human activities."

DATA - Debt, Aids, and Trade in Africa - DATA is a new organization which aims to raise awareness about the crisis swamping Africa: unpayable DEBTS, uncontrolled spread of AIDS, and unfair TRADE rules which keep AFRICANS poor.

The Edmonds Institute - The Edmonds Institute focuses on biosafety and enacting legally-binding international regulation of modern biotechnologies, as well as on intellectual property rights and just policies for the maintenance and protection of biodiversity, including policies that foster recognition and sustenance of agricultural biodiversity.

Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting - FAIR is a national media watch group that has offered well-documented criticism of media bias and censorship since 1986.

FAIR publishes the excellent, classroom-friendly Extra!, an award-winning magazine of media criticism; and distributes regular updates, available via their listserv.

FAIR also produces a weekly radio program, CounterSpin. A vital source to get students thinking critically about media coverage of world events.

50 Years Is Enough - A coalition of over 200 grassroots, faith-based, policy, women's, social- and economic-justice, youth, solidarity, labor, and development organizations dedicated to the profound transformation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

Its website features excellent, classroom-ready factsheets about globalization issues, especially about the consequences of the Third World debt crisis.

Focus on the Global South - Too often discussions of globalization are dominated by those of us in the North, however well-intended or well-informed we may be.

Focus on the Global South's website features wonderful, hard-to-find, in-depth articles from the perspective of activists and scholars in the global South ÷ the so-called Third World. See their "publications" section.

Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy - Food First describes itself as "a peoples think tank and education-for-action center."

Over the 25-plus years that this pioneering organization has been around, it has published some of the most useful books on food and hunger issues.

Through its publications and activism, it continues to offer leadership to the struggle for reforming the global food system
from the bottom up. The catalog is online at their website.

Friends of the Earth - Friends of the Earth is a national environmental organization dedicated to preserving the health and diversity of the planet. FOE distributes valuable publications ranging from books on global warming to the IMF's effects on the environment.

Global Exchange - Founded in 1988, Global Exchange is an organization dedicated to promoting environmental, political, and social justice around the world. In the late Î90s, Global Exchange was perhaps the most important organization drawing attention to Nike's sweatshop abuses.

Their expansive website gives a flavor for the diversity of activities they have initiated, which include "people to people" projects, such as "reality tours" to Third World countries, managing "fair trade" stores, and publishing resources on global justice issues. Global Exchange is one of the key global justice organizations.

Greenpeace International / Greenpeace USA - Greenpeace began
in 1971 when activists went to "bear witness" to nuclear weapons
testing planned for Amchitka island, off Alaska.

Today Greenpeace is one of the leading organizations using nonviolent direct action to expose global environmental problems and to promote solutions that are essential to what the organization hopes will be a "green and peaceful future."

It sponsors campaigns on global warming, environmental toxics, destructive fishing, genetic engineering, nuclear power and weapons, and saving ancient forests.

Both websites feature extensive background materials on these issues, action alerts, ways to get involved, and numerous links to other organizations.

The Independent Media Center - This is the CNN of the global social justice movement and a wonderful resource.

The Center acts as a clearinghouse of information and provides up-to-theminute reports, photos, audio, and video footage of global social justice struggles through its website.

Launched during the Seattle WTO protests of late 1999, Indymedia
is a fascinating, colorful site. Updated regularly. Great graphics.

The Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism - The IPCB is organized to assist indigenous peoples in the protection of their genetic resources, indigenous knowledge, and cultural and human rights from the negative effects of biotechnology.

INFACT - A non-partisan national grassroots organization whose purpose is to stop life-threatening abuses by transnational corporations.

Through the Tobacco Industry Campaign, INFACT is pressuring Philip Morris to stop addicting new young customers around the world, and to stop interfering in public policy on issues of tobacco and health.

INFACT promotes a boycott of Philip Morris-owned Kraft foods and distributes the important video Making a Killing, exposing Philip Morris's brand of tobacco imperialism around the world. Articles posted on their website, like "The Marlboro Man Goes Overseas," could be used with students.

Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy - The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy promotes resilient family farms, rural communities and ecosystems around the world through research and education, and advocacy. Their website includes background readings, articles, and forums on vital issues of agriculture and trade.

Institute for Global Communications (IGC) - "The mission of IGC is to advance the work of progressive organizations and individuals for peace, justice, economic opportunity, human rights, democracy and environmental sustainability through strategic use of online technologies." IGC is an outstanding resource, with a fabulous search engine that is linked to social justice networks of all kinds.

Institute for Policy Studies - An important think tank on global issues from a social justice perspective. IPS has programs on Peace and Security, the Global Economy, and Paths for the 21st Century, supplemented by several projects that address specific issues.

International Education and Resource Network (iEARN) - iEARN is a nonprofit organization made up of almost 4,000 schools in over 90 countries. It aims to empower teachers and young people (K-12) to work together online at low cost through a global telecommunications network.

International Rivers Network - IRN is an important network that works to support communities around the world struggling to protect rivers and watersheds. They see this work as part of a movement for "environmental integrity, social justice and human rights." IRN's website is a valuable source of information about global water struggles.

Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility - A coalition of 275 Protestant, Roman Catholic and Jewish institutional investors that organizes corporate campaigns to press companies to be socially and environmentally responsible. Publishes the newsletter, The Corporate Examiner.

Interhemispheric Resource Center - A research and policy institute that produces books, reports, and periodicals on U.S. foreign policy. Publishes annual Cross-Border Links Directories which lists and annotates fair-trade networks, labor, and environmental groups. Publishes the newsletter, Borderlines.

International Forum on Globalization - Begun as an alliance of over 60 scholars, activists and writers, the IFG has sponsored important conferences to evaluate the social and environmental impact of globalization. They have published numerous booklets. Their website features worthwhile resources on the World Trade Organization, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, among others.

International Labor Organization - The ILO is the UN agency that promotes internationally recognized human and labor rights. The organization maintains a searchable website on labor issues of all kinds, such as child labor, and includes useful articles, links, and reports.

International Labor Rights Fund - The ILRF is a nonprofit organization that takes action on behalf of working people, and creates innovative programs and enforcement mechanisms to protect workers' rights.

Current campaigns include child labor, monitoring labor rights in China, sweatshops, forced labor in Burma, and examining IMF/World Bank practices. Provides detailed information on the effects of NAFTA.

The International Society for Ecology and Culture - ISEC promotes locally based alternatives to the global consumer culture. ISEC produced the extraordinarily useful video Ancient Futures, about the negative effects of the arrival of "development" in the Himalayan region of Ladakh.

Jobs With Justice - A national campaign, with local affiliates, to organize support for workers' rights struggles. JwJ's Student Labor Action Project is an initiative focused on supporting student activism around issues of workers' rights as well as social and economic justice. Extensive information on current campaigns at their website.

Jubilee USA Network - Jubilee USA Network is a coalition of faith-based and activist organizations who denounce the debt owed by impoverished nations to the IMF and the World Bank as illegitimate and pledge to oppose the "debt domination" by wealthy nations. A fine source for action ideas, links and additional resources on the effects of the Third World debt crisis and resistance to it.

Also valuable is Jubilee 2000 UK, on the web at Jubilee 2000 UK is the British affiliate of the international movement calling for cancellation of the unpayable debt of the world's poorest countries under a fair and transparent process. Its website includes articles, links and ways for people to get involved in the global movement for economic justice.

MADRE - An international women's human rights organization that works in partnership with women's community-based groups in conflict areas worldwide.

Our programs address issues of sustainable development, community improvement and women's health; violence and war; discrimination and racism; self-determination and collective rights; women's leadership development; and human rights education.

MADRE provides resources and training to enable our sister organizations to meet immediate needs in their communities
and develop long-term solutions to the crises they face.

Maquiladora Health & Safety Support Network - A volunteer network of occupational health and safety professionals providing information, technical assistance and on-site instruction regarding workplace hazards in the over 3,800 "maquiladora" (foreign-owned export-oriented assembly plants) along the U.S.-Mexico border. Their website includes excellent resources and links on maquiladora health and safety issues.

Maquila Solidarity Network - The Maquila Solidarity Network is a Canadian network promoting solidarity with groups in Mexico, Central America, and Asia organizing in maquiladora factories and export processing zones to improve conditions and win a living wage.

Their website includes hard-to-find resources on maquilas by country or company, and many articles on sweatshop issues. Valuable links to other Canadian and international organizations concerned with workers' rights issues.

National Coalition of Education Activists (NCEA) - A network of teacher, parent, and community activists who organize around social justice issues in schools and communities. Biannual conferences feature workshops on teaching strategies for social justice, among other issues. Publishes the newsletter Action for Better Schools.

National Labor Committee - NLC's goal is to "end labor and human rights violations, ensure a living wage tied to a basket of needs, and help workers and their families live and work with dignity" ÷ through education and activism.

The organization, under director Charles Kernaghan, has been one
of the most effective groups in raising awareness about super-
exploitation and horrific conditions in global sweatshops.

The National Labor Committee is the producer of some valuable videos and reports on sweatshop and labor rights issues around the world (see, for example, the videos Zoned for Slavery and Mickey Mouse Goes to Haiti).

Network of Educators on the Americas (NECA) - NECA publishes excellent multicultural, global justice teaching materials, such as the Caribbean Connection series and the widely used Beyond Heroes and Holidays. NECA's Teaching for Change catalog is the single best source for resources to rethink and teach about globalization.

One World International - One World is "a community of organizations working from a range of perspectives and backgrounds to promote sustainable development and human rights."

Described as the "global supersite on sustainable development and human rights," this is truly an amazing website, filled with photo galleries, news, special country reports, campaigns, and the like.

Oxfam America - Oxfam America is dedicated to creating lasting solutions to hunger, poverty, and social injustice through long-term partnerships with poor communities around the world. Their website features lots of educational materials and links to other global education sites.

Prison Activist Resource Center - The source for progressive and radical info on prisons and the criminal prosecution system.

Rainforest Action Network - RAN works to protect the earth's rainforests and support the rights of their inhabitants through education, grassroots organizing, and nonviolent direct action.

Theirs is a must-visit, comprehensive website that includes a wealth of information, including ideas for activities and activism with students, classroom-friendly fact sheets, and links to indigenous rainforest groups.

RAN has a Beyond Oil Campaign that should be of interest to students who are responsive to activities in Rethinking Globalization's chapter on consumption and the environment.

Resource Center of the Americas - The Resource Center provides information and develops programs that demonstrate connections between people of Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States.

Over the years they have published a great deal of curriculum in this area. Their website includes an on-line catalog of these and other classroom materials, along with resources on critical issues about the Americas.

Rethinking Schools - Its quarterly journal, Rethinking Schools, is produced largely by classroom teachers with a focus on social justice and equity. The website contains this entire resource list with all website addresses hot-linked, so all you need to do is click on them and you are taken to each site.

The Rethinking Schools website also features a number of additional articles on teaching about globalization, including further resources and lesson plans that are mentioned in this book. Rethinking Schools publishes Rethinking Columbus and Rethinking Our Classrooms, volumes 1 and 2.

RUGMARK Foundation - RUGMARK is a global nonprofit organization working to end child labor and offer educational opportunities to children in India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

It organizes loom and factory monitoring, sponsors consumer labeling, and runs schools for former child workers. RUGMARK recruits carpet producers and importers to make and sell carpets
that are free of child labor.

Rural Advancement Foundation International - RAFI is dedicated
to the conservation and sustainable improvement of agricultural
biodiversity, and to the socially responsible development of
technologies useful to rural societies.

RAFI deals with issues such as the loss of genetic diversity ÷ especially in agriculture ÷ and about the impact of "intellectual property rights" on agriculture and world food security. Their searchable website is very useful, featuring articles, publications, and issue updates.

Schools for Chiapas - An organization working in solidarity with the struggles in Chiapas, Mexico. Mobilizes people and resources to build schools in Chiapas. The organization also sponsors trips to study Spanish and Mayan language and culture in Chiapas. The website features news articles, historical information and other resources.

STITCH - STITCH is a network of U.S. women working to support women's organizing for a just wage and fair treatment on the job
in Central America.

STITCH has a project to document women's organizing experiences in export industries in Central America. The interview with Yesenia Bonilla in Rethinking Globalization (see p. 142) is excerpted from STITCH's booklet, "Women Behind the Labels: Worker Testimonies from Central America."

Sweatshop Watch - Sweatshop Watch is a coalition of labor, community, civil rights, immigrant rights, women's, religious, and student organizations committed to eliminating sweatshop conditions in the global garment industry. Their website provides updates on current sweatshop issues, links, and reports. Monthly e-mail action alerts available.

Third World Network - An independent nonprofit international network of organizations and individuals involved in issues relating to development, the Third World, and North-South issues.

Publishes the valuable Third World Resurgence magazine. The magazine and website is an essential resource to learn more about Third World perspectives on globalization issues.

TransAfrica Forum - TransAfrica Forum provides commentary and scholarship on policy issues related to Africa and the Caribbean.

The organization seeks to educate Americans in general, and African Americans in particular, on human rights and global economic policy. Reports on TransAfrica's website deal with issues such as the Sub-Saharan Africa debt burden, the impact of tourism in the Caribbean, and landmines.

UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees) - UNITE was formed by the merger of two of the nation's oldest unions, the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU). UNITE's website offers information on campaigns against sweatshops, as well as government and organizational links.

United Farm Workers - Affiliated with the AFL-CIO, the UFW is the oldest and most prominent farm worker union in the United States.

Their website includes links, current news articles, updates, and background white papers, such as "Fingers to the Bone: United States Failure to Protect Child Farm Workers," "Fields of Poisons: California Farm Workers and Pesticides," "Five Cents for Fairness: The Case for Change in the Strawberry Fields," "Trouble on the Farm: Growing Up With Pesticides in Agricultural Communities," and "Pesticides in Our Food and Water."

United for a Fair Economy - UFE provides numerous resources to organizations and individuals working to address the widening income and asset gap in the United States and around the world.

They publish graphic-rich training and curriculum materials, and their website is a valuable one, including an economics library, research library, and fact sheets.

UNICEF - United Nations Children's Fund - UNICEF produces educational materials and distributes funds to children's programs throughout the world. Their annual The State of the World's Children provides useful statistics.

Women of Color - Resource Center WCRC develops and distributes resources about women of color that advance social justice movements.

WCRC published the valuable curriculum guide Women's Education in the Global Economy. Their website includes excellent hard-to-find links to projects that organize around issues concentrating on women of color.

Zapatistas - The Zapatistas, based in the southern-most Mexican state of Chiapas, have drawn worldwide attention to the plight of indigenous people in the era of free trade.

Their website is mostly in Spanish, although it does have some English translations. It's a fascinating site and the links will put students in touch with indigenous movements around the world.

ZNet/Z Magazine - Z Net is one of the most amazing websites we've found. Forums, commentaries from around the world, song lyrics for 530 songs-with-a-conscience, courses, analyses on global issues of all kinds.

Many pre-college students might find some of the writing a bit hard-going, but there is a tremendous amount here. Z Magazine is available the old fashioned way ÷ in print. See "Journals for Global Justice," p. 381.

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